# 2001-08-30 – A theory to explain the origin of the universe, with pictures!

Sadly, I am still trying to work out how to use Binary Large OBjects to serve these pictures from the database. Have no fear, I am working on it. If the worst comes to the worst, I shall put up a separate page.

(Admin note: Page is below)

Gravity and the Beginnings of the

Universe

# A possible way to explain the

inflation theory without changing Relativity

by Nigel Tolley

07/06/2005*

There is dichotomy in cosmology. If we ponder the theory of the

creation of the universe, the “Big Bang”. According to

current theory, all the matter and energy in the Universe appeared

from this single event. How?

A major issue for many years has been the “missing mass”

that is required to explain the current rate of expansion of the

universe, following the big bang. So far, attempts to explain the

short period of rapid expansion from singularity to a universe

roughly the size of a basketball, have invoked all sorts of weird

effects and ideas, such as M symmetry and SuperString Theory.

The paradox is brought about by Einstein’s Theory of Relativity,

which gives the result that if enough mass is concentrated in one

place the force of gravity resulting is strong enough to curve

space-time itself and forms a singularity known as a black hole, a

body with a gravitational field so strong, even light itself cannot

escape. The use of the Schwarzschild radius to argue that a black

hole cannot form only hold true for a few moments of expansion^{0}.

Once the density drops due to the expansion, we must seek another

mechanism. If that much matter were in one place then, according to

our current theories, the Universe would simply have remained a black

hole, or if it were not a black hole, it would rapidly have become

one.

Some have used this to attack the big bang theory, and others have

used it to attack relativity (or rather, some aspects of relativity).

However, there is a way

forward. Using currently accepted theories of physics, we can explain

this and indeed we can also ponder the creation of gravity itself. A

little-known result of relativity is that if we have two infinite

flat plates which are parallel to one another there is no

gravitational attraction between them^{1}.

Now consider the early universe. Imagine that it was the size of a

basketball ^{A}, and perfectly spherical.

Due to the curvature of space-time, due to the

universe being closed, an infinite parallel plate would of necessity

be both constrained and unconstrained by the curved boundary of

space-time. If the universe is in a totally homogeneous state^{2},

to an observer at the point C, at the center of the spherical

universe, an arbitrary plane through that center point will form two

infinite, parallel plates. The universe is isotropic around C. To an

observer outside the universe, who can see the bounds of space-time,

of course, the plates do not appear infinite, as the outer observer

is not bounded by Euclidean geometry.

Under these conditions any plane which intersects the

central point would have an effectively infinite mass on either side

and it would appear to the observer in real Euclidean space to be

infinite.

This plane could be oriented in any fashion and the same thing

would be true, therefore at the center (or the origin) of the early

universe, there was no force of gravity acting upon the point from

which the universe came into being. With no gravity to

constrain the expansion, the universe grows rapidly. This can also be

inferred logically, since if gravity did exist, the net effect at the

point C would be zero, since the attraction would be the same from

all sides. An analogue of this can be seen with net electrical

charges inside a conducting sphere.

If we now assume that this state of affairs continues right

the way back until just before the universe was a singularity, it can

be reasoned that any source of expansion from that origin (as long as

it was equal in all directions) would result in the universe

expanding very rapidly and, according to our relativistic flat plates

theory, unencumbered by gravity. As the universe expanded it would

have been homogeneous and hence no matter its size there would still

have been no effect from gravity until clumping began.

The very instant that any inhomogeneity appeared gravity would

effectively be created, and would instantly begin to act to slow the

expansion of the universe. However, if it was a single, point event,

the flat plate scenario could continue, for at least a short time. If

we now arrange our plane to divide the defect, whilst still passing

through the center, we see that the gravitational effect occurs only

on other planes, and not on this one.

Of course, the inertia of the universe would continue the

expansion, and the fabric of space time would continue to expand

along those planes where gravity was still nullified by the effective

presence of parallel plates, and gravity would rapidly assert itself

on the expansion. How rapidly depends, of course, on your thoughts on

the speed of gravity.

Of course, the second inhomogeneity can appear at any

point in the universe, and may, indeed, have been a ripple effect, as

the point inhomogeneity grew. This would further skew the shape of

the universe. Eventually, by whatever mechanism, there would no

longer be a plane of symmetry, and gravity would be extant

everywhere. The external shape of the resulting universe could,

therefore, be calculated if the locations of the “defects”

were known.

Another result which can be inferred from this is that gravity

will continue to act upon and within any black hole until it

encompasses (swallows) the entire contents of the universe. Once it

has done this and compressed all the matter contained in the

universe, mashing it together with its incredibly powerful

gravitational field, it will begin to remove any differences in the

matter, reverting if you like to a primordial quark soup. Once it

becomes truly homogeneous about the centre, gravity should in theory

cease to be. Unbounded by gravity, the other forces (strong nuclear,

weak nuclear and electrostatics) and the extreme temperature will

mean that rapid expansion again occurs and the universe is reborn.

As a series of bang:crunches the universe would continue to be

reborn then die and then be reborn again consisting of exactly the

same components each time, reset through the primordial soup of

quarks and electrons. Note the this would continue even in the event

of the total heat death of the universe, as long as the gravity was

sufficient to pull the universe back to the initial crunch:bang

point.

It is of course possible that eventually the initial inhomogeneity

that “causes” gravity could come into being so long after

the expansion began that gravitational attraction was unable to

overcome the expansion, resulting in the universe continuing to

expand forever. The absence of enough mass to explain the current

patterns of the universe without invoking “dark matter”

may be explained.

According to relativity the sum of energy and the matter in the

universe is a constant – as the energy increases, the mass decreases,

and vice versa. Perhaps if the proportion of matter to energy were

correct the universe could reach a steady state.

A. I used the “size of a basketball” to

mean that, to a hypothetical outside observer who could see the

entire universe at once, the whole universe would be about the size

of said ball. Obviously, it could be on any scale, from the

sub-atomic to the current size, but as a human reference, a sphere

the size of a basketball works well. (to A)

References:

- http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/encyclopedia/S/Sc/Schwarzschild_radius.htm

The Schwarzschild radius (to 0) - http://newton.ex.ac.uk/aip/physnews.206.html

Theory of Infinite Flat Plates (to 1) - http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/encyclopedia/F/Fr/Friedmann-Lema%EEtre-Robertson-Walker3.htm

The FLRW model of the universe (to 2) - http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/encyclopedia/E/Ei/Einsteins_field_equation.htm

Notes and description of Einstein’s Field Equations

* I’ve been

sitting on this idea for a long time, at least three years. I did

this today instead of my lock patent, as I needed a break from it!