Sadly, I am still trying to work out how to use Binary Large OBjects to serve these pictures from the database. Have no fear, I am working on it. If the worst comes to the worst, I shall put up a separate page.
(Admin note: Page is below)
Gravity and the Beginnings of the
A possible way to explain the
inflation theory without changing Relativity
by Nigel Tolley
There is dichotomy in cosmology. If we ponder the theory of the
creation of the universe, the “Big Bang”. According to
current theory, all the matter and energy in the Universe appeared
from this single event. How?
A major issue for many years has been the “missing mass”
that is required to explain the current rate of expansion of the
universe, following the big bang. So far, attempts to explain the
short period of rapid expansion from singularity to a universe
roughly the size of a basketball, have invoked all sorts of weird
effects and ideas, such as M symmetry and SuperString Theory.
The paradox is brought about by Einstein’s Theory of Relativity,
which gives the result that if enough mass is concentrated in one
place the force of gravity resulting is strong enough to curve
space-time itself and forms a singularity known as a black hole, a
body with a gravitational field so strong, even light itself cannot
escape. The use of the Schwarzschild radius to argue that a black
hole cannot form only hold true for a few moments of expansion0.
Once the density drops due to the expansion, we must seek another
mechanism. If that much matter were in one place then, according to
our current theories, the Universe would simply have remained a black
hole, or if it were not a black hole, it would rapidly have become
Some have used this to attack the big bang theory, and others have
used it to attack relativity (or rather, some aspects of relativity).
However, there is a way
forward. Using currently accepted theories of physics, we can explain
this and indeed we can also ponder the creation of gravity itself. A
little-known result of relativity is that if we have two infinite
flat plates which are parallel to one another there is no
gravitational attraction between them1.
Now consider the early universe. Imagine that it was the size of a
basketball A, and perfectly spherical.
Due to the curvature of space-time, due to the
universe being closed, an infinite parallel plate would of necessity
be both constrained and unconstrained by the curved boundary of
space-time. If the universe is in a totally homogeneous state2,
to an observer at the point C, at the center of the spherical
universe, an arbitrary plane through that center point will form two
infinite, parallel plates. The universe is isotropic around C. To an
observer outside the universe, who can see the bounds of space-time,
of course, the plates do not appear infinite, as the outer observer
is not bounded by Euclidean geometry.
Under these conditions any plane which intersects the
central point would have an effectively infinite mass on either side
and it would appear to the observer in real Euclidean space to be
This plane could be oriented in any fashion and the same thing
would be true, therefore at the center (or the origin) of the early
universe, there was no force of gravity acting upon the point from
which the universe came into being. With no gravity to
constrain the expansion, the universe grows rapidly. This can also be
inferred logically, since if gravity did exist, the net effect at the
point C would be zero, since the attraction would be the same from
all sides. An analogue of this can be seen with net electrical
charges inside a conducting sphere.
If we now assume that this state of affairs continues right
the way back until just before the universe was a singularity, it can
be reasoned that any source of expansion from that origin (as long as
it was equal in all directions) would result in the universe
expanding very rapidly and, according to our relativistic flat plates
theory, unencumbered by gravity. As the universe expanded it would
have been homogeneous and hence no matter its size there would still
have been no effect from gravity until clumping began.
The very instant that any inhomogeneity appeared gravity would
effectively be created, and would instantly begin to act to slow the
expansion of the universe. However, if it was a single, point event,
the flat plate scenario could continue, for at least a short time. If
we now arrange our plane to divide the defect, whilst still passing
through the center, we see that the gravitational effect occurs only
on other planes, and not on this one.
Of course, the inertia of the universe would continue the
expansion, and the fabric of space time would continue to expand
along those planes where gravity was still nullified by the effective
presence of parallel plates, and gravity would rapidly assert itself
on the expansion. How rapidly depends, of course, on your thoughts on
the speed of gravity.
Of course, the second inhomogeneity can appear at any
point in the universe, and may, indeed, have been a ripple effect, as
the point inhomogeneity grew. This would further skew the shape of
the universe. Eventually, by whatever mechanism, there would no
longer be a plane of symmetry, and gravity would be extant
everywhere. The external shape of the resulting universe could,
therefore, be calculated if the locations of the “defects”
Another result which can be inferred from this is that gravity
will continue to act upon and within any black hole until it
encompasses (swallows) the entire contents of the universe. Once it
has done this and compressed all the matter contained in the
universe, mashing it together with its incredibly powerful
gravitational field, it will begin to remove any differences in the
matter, reverting if you like to a primordial quark soup. Once it
becomes truly homogeneous about the centre, gravity should in theory
cease to be. Unbounded by gravity, the other forces (strong nuclear,
weak nuclear and electrostatics) and the extreme temperature will
mean that rapid expansion again occurs and the universe is reborn.
As a series of bang:crunches the universe would continue to be
reborn then die and then be reborn again consisting of exactly the
same components each time, reset through the primordial soup of
quarks and electrons. Note the this would continue even in the event
of the total heat death of the universe, as long as the gravity was
sufficient to pull the universe back to the initial crunch:bang
It is of course possible that eventually the initial inhomogeneity
that “causes” gravity could come into being so long after
the expansion began that gravitational attraction was unable to
overcome the expansion, resulting in the universe continuing to
expand forever. The absence of enough mass to explain the current
patterns of the universe without invoking “dark matter”
may be explained.
According to relativity the sum of energy and the matter in the
universe is a constant – as the energy increases, the mass decreases,
and vice versa. Perhaps if the proportion of matter to energy were
correct the universe could reach a steady state.
A. I used the “size of a basketball” to
mean that, to a hypothetical outside observer who could see the
entire universe at once, the whole universe would be about the size
of said ball. Obviously, it could be on any scale, from the
sub-atomic to the current size, but as a human reference, a sphere
the size of a basketball works well. (to A)
The Schwarzschild radius (to 0)
Theory of Infinite Flat Plates (to 1)
The FLRW model of the universe (to 2)
Notes and description of Einstein’s Field Equations
* I’ve been
sitting on this idea for a long time, at least three years. I did
this today instead of my lock patent, as I needed a break from it!